Using water wisely for future needs
Water shortage is not a problem at all. In fact, the available rainfall on the earth is sufficient for all the needs of the society. It is only our misappropriation and indiscriminate use of water is only reason for the shortage.
70-80% of water is used for irrigation for crops and plants against the real requirement of hardly 10 %. This is what Vijay Kedia explains in his web site, Google search "varshajal vijay khedia". If we can save this excess water being used irrigation, we can definitely, mitigate the shortage. Even if we save 50% excess water being wasted, on account of irrigation, the present interstate water disputes will not be there in the country.
Another area where we are wasting water is using flush latrines in which we use more than 10 times water we use for drinking purposes for flushing. This is western concept not Indian. In fact, we used to get the excreta decomposed in natural way used as fertilizer for the plants in nature. In modern times, this can be achieved by dry latrines being practiced by Kasturiba trust. I saw one near Raipur (Chhattisgarh).
The water saved as above can be better utilised for dilution of the domestic and industrial waste being disposed into streams and rivers in the country. Pollution in rivers is because of long stretches dry patches in the river course due to major dams on the rivers holding the natural flow of water completely.
A solution can be Macro watershed development by creating large number of water pools in the entire river basin by check dams of height not more than 3 meters on all main rivers, tributaries and smaller streams and so on.
In such situation, stray and seasonal showers here and there also will contribute to water pools and flows in the streams. These water pools will contribute to ground water and moisture at a shallow depth below earth surface near root zone of plants.
Still balancing of water from excess and short water river basins by inter linking of rivers is necessary, not for fulfilling requirements irrigation, but to maintain flows in rivers for longer durations of time to safeguard against river pollution. Interlinking of rivers Brahmaputra, Ganga and Cauvery was a dream of eminent water resources engineer Dr. K L Rao. This was not fulfilled due lack of will of the government and requirement of huge quantity of Electrical Power for the project.
Now on the question of shortage Power in the country, the author has a concept of non-conventional mini micro hydel power using a small screw pump made by village carpenter on all canal drops. There is more than 10,000MW of un tapped power in the country. Availability of local power can reduce pressure on national power suppliers to fulfill the power requirements elsewhere.